Chestnut Canoe Factory

Chestnut Canoe Factory, Fredericton, NB

Chestnut Canoe Factory

Towards the end of the 19th century, affluent American adventurers discovered the New Brunswick wilderness and traveled along the Saint John River in wood-canvas canoes crafted by B.N. Morris, E.M. White, and E.H. Gerrish.

William and Henry Chestnut, who inherited their father’s hardware business, recognized the demand for canvas-covered canoes. However, importing them from the United States would significantly increase their price due to import duties. The Chestnut brothers hired boatbuilder Jack J. Moore to construct a Morris canoe replica. Early Chestnut canoes clearly exhibited Morris’s influence.

Chestnut Canoe Factory

As Chestnut’s business expanded and required additional skilled builders, William Chestnut went to Maine and actively recruited workers from the Old Town factory. Old Town retaliated by filing a lawsuit and threatening to establish their own factory in Canada.

Chestnut Canoe 1904

In 1905, Chestnut was awarded a patent for the wood-canvas canoe construction process, even though it had been in use for over three decades. In 1909, they sued Peterborough Canoe Company for patent infringement, but the case was dismissed. Eventually, Chestnut Canoe Company and Peterborough Canoe Company merged under the holding company Canadian Watercraft Limited, with Canadian Canoe Company joining in 1927. All three companies maintained distinct identities post-merger while marketing nearly identical canvas canoe lines. It is commonly believed that Chestnut handled canvas canoe production for all three companies.

Chestnut Canoe Factory, Fredericton, NB

The Chestnut Canoe Factory became the largest enterprise of its kind in the British Empire. By 1914, the globally renowned company produced 1,200 exquisite canoes annually and supplied the armed forces with thousands of pairs of snowshoes. Today, vintage Chestnut canoes are highly sought after.

The visible brick factory building is actually the second factory on this site.

Chestnut Canoe Factory
Second location of the Chestnut Canoe Factory on the south side of King Street below Northumberland Street. circa 1905 PANB P5-422 colourised.

The first factory was finished in 1908. But in December 1921, it all burned down in a spectacular blaze. In 1923 a new building was finished. 

Chestnut Canoe Factory, Fredericton, NB

After 69 years in operation, the Chestnut Company relocated from Fredericton to a new factory in Oromocto in 1974. The factory permanently closed in 1979, shipping their last canoes early that year. Many of the Chestnut molds still exist and are used in various wooden canoe shops across Canada.

One notable Chestnut canoe enthusiast was American President Teddy Roosevelt, who purchased Chestnut canoes for a South American expedition.

Henry Chestnut, founder of Chestnut Canoe in his roadster with his canoe on top in the early 1930's. 
Henry Chestnut, founder of Chestnut Canoe in his roadster with his canoe on top in the early 1930’s.

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5 thoughts on “Chestnut Canoe Factory

  1. When it came to snowshoes. During WWII all manufacturing had to be for the war effort. Well Canoes probably wouldn’t do well in a fight. So the the company switched to making snowshoes. I have a couple of pairs from the 1940’s. ( wood burn stamp )They continued to make them until the 1960’s ( chestnut decals) I believe. Until plastics took over.

  2. I have a pair of bear paw Chestnut Canoe snowshoes. (oval snowshoes)

    I would like to know more of the history on these snowshoes. Do you have any more information than what is on the site at present, and possibly some images the the Chestnut Canoe Snowshoes? I have found nothing online with this rare oval snowshoe. I am putting together a brief history and any help would be great!

    1. Unfortunately we don’t have any information, however one of our followers might and hopefully they can contact you.

      Larry & Steve

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